By Delayed Intrauterine Growth or CIR, we understand the alteration in the growth of the fetus during pregnancy. This pathology has multiple causes, although the etiology is unknown in almost 40% of cases.
The consequences of CIR are very varied, and a wide range of them are contemplated, ranging from an anecdotal discovery without subsequent consequences to delayed learning, mental retardation, neurological or behavioral disorders, among others.
Within the 'CIR pathology' we can distinguish two large groups:
1. CIR type I or symmetric:
- It accounts for 20% of the diagnosed cases of CIR (the least frequent),
- Its diagnosis is early (before the 28th week of pregnancy).
- Frequent causes: genetic, drugs, infections, exposure to teratogens.
- Alterations in the fetus: Microcephaly, decrease in the size of the brain and liver.
2. CIR type II or asymmetric:
- It accounts for 80% of the diagnosed cases of CIR (the most frequent).
- Your diagnosis is late (after week 28).
- Frequent causes: placental insufficiency.
- Alterations in the fetus: normal brain, diminished liver.
Babies who have been diagnosed with CIUR in the fetal period are children who deserve a more exhaustive follow-up than other babies, in order to detect possible deviations from normality in the first years of life.
The pediatrician and the primary care nurse will assess the babies both in the 'well-child' follow-up consultations and in the extraordinary consultations that the healthcare professional considers pertinent. They will pay special attention to the psychomotor development of the baby, without alarming the parents, since we will take into account that development is a continuous process that extends from conception to maturity.
We can talk about some possible warning signs, which are a deviation from the normal pattern of development, without necessarily assuming a neurological alteration, but it is worth paying much more attention:
- Delay in acquisitions.
- Stagnation or regression in acquired skills.
- Persistence of behaviors typical of previous stages.
- Presence of abnormal physical signs: macro / microcephaly, osteotendinous areflexia (no presence of normal reflexes), obvious physical alterations in the face or body.
- Postural asymmetries or motor function.
- Inadequate quality of responses.
- Atypical forms of development.
It is known that an early diagnosis allows an early intervention, which will mean an improvement in the quality of life of affected babies, and a decrease in disorders in the future.
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